The heritage of Imam Amir al Mu'minin Ali (peace be upon him) is large and wealthy as Imam himself in his wealth and his supreme divine stature.

The main heritage of Imam is the sayings and deeds. The sayings divide into the sermons and letters, wisdom and commandments, the teachings and supplications and other subsidiary forms.

Here, the important for our subject is the sermons that he delivered from the rostrum of the greatest mosque in al-Kufa. These speeches are few of the many sermons that Imam said in his life; here we refer to them because of their relation to the nature of the research on the Kufa mosque in which Imam had a great role and the mosque's role in Islamic civilization.

Thus, we will point out a number of those sermons or parts of them as contained in the book "Nahijul-Balagha compiled by Sharif al-Radi deceased in 406 AH, or from different sources so that the reader can know the sermons that Imam Amir al-Mu'minin delivered (peace be upon him) in the inclusive mosque in al-Kufa. 

Imam's Sermon at his coming to al-Kufa:

The first thing to start with is the sermon of Imam that he delivered from the rostrum of the Kufa mosque. The speech that he inaugurated his coming in the year 36 AH to al-Kufa, where he directly entered the inclusive mosque in al-Kufa so that he could deliver the sermon of the coming and inauguration. Soon he was in the Kufa mosque, he prayed two bows and then ascended the platform where he praised and blessed Allah and His Messenger (Allah bless him and his family)([1]), and said,

((So now, O people of al-Kufa, you have a favor in Islam, unless you change your behavior and modify your deeds. I have called you to the right, and you responded positively, you started with the atrociousness but you changed now. The favor is between yourselves and Allah in the provisions and the oath. You are like the one who responds to your wishes and then he takes your side. However, what I am afraid from is that you follow the passion and the length of hope. As for the following of passion repels the right. Certainly, the present life is a work without a retribution while tomorrow is a retribution without a work. 

Praise be to Allah, Who let His guardian to triumph, and let down his enemy, cherish the rightful honest and humiliate the resolutely. You have to obey Allah, who obeys Allah, as well as he obeys the family of Prophet, who are prior to obey for their obedience to Allah, than to obey, those personated that, they were at our side, doing grace but it  is ours. They refused our order, stood against us, and pushed us away from our right. They will face the sever suffering of their obstinacy, and their end will be the hell. None among you supports me I will blame him severely. So leave them and heard to what they hate to hear so that they return to the path right and know the party of Allah from the band))([2]). 

The first Friday sermon in the mosque:

Al-Manqari mentioned in Sifeen Battle ((From Abi Tibat and then from his father: Ali ended his prayer when he entered al-Kufa. on Friday, he attended the prayer and delivered his sermon([3]). Imam said ((That thank Allah and I praise Him asking for His help and following His guidance; I pray that Allah protect me from misguidance. Whom Allah guides, nobody can mislead him, and who misguides, and he will find no guider. I bear witness that no God but except Allah alone with no partner and that Mohammed is His slave and Messenger whom He chose for His order and singled him the prophecy; he is the most dignified among His creatures, and the most loved for Him. He brings the message of His God and did the best for his nation, leading it to his best. You have ordered to fear Allah and you have created for the charity and obedience. So be cautious the torture of Allah which is very severe. You have to fear Allah without any ex-cuse, and work in non-hypocrisy nor reputation, because who does not work to Allah, he

will get nothing, but who works to Allah faithfully gaining Allah's reward. You have to avoid the torture of Allah, where He did not create you in vain, and did not leave a thing of your order in vain. He wrote down your traces and knew your work, and wrote down the date of your death. So, do not be proud of present life that is deceiving its people and he is cocky whom it conceited, and then it will be passing away. Moreover, that the afterlife is animal house if they knew. I ask Allah for the homes of the martyrs, and for accompanying the prophets, and the living of happy people for we are for Him and to Him))([4]). 

Other Sermon in the Mosque:

Aban said from Salem Bin Qais al-Kufi that Amir al-Mu'minin as Sifeen Battle/Naser Bin Muzahim al-Manqri: P9cended the pulpit (peace be upon him), and the he glorified and praised Allah, to delivere his sermon ([5]), which Salem has mentioned so long, but I will copy it from Nahij al-Balaqha of the selection of al-Sharif al-Razi. Amir al-Mu'ninin's shows his vastness of knowledge and the mischief mongering of Bane Umayyad ((So now, Praise and Glorification to Allah. O people! I have gauged the eye of the sedition. No one has the courage to advance towards it, except me, when its gloom was swelling and the madness was intense. Ask me before you miss me because, by Allah Who has my life in His hands, if you ask me about anything between your present time and the Day of Judgment, or on the groups that will guide a hundred people or misguide a hundred. I will tell you who is calling for its march, who is leading it and who is driving it, and where it will start and rest and its final place of stay, who among them will kill and who die a natural death. When I am dead, the harsh circum-stances and the distressing events will befall upon you. Many askers will not have the courage to ask any question, while those, in responsibilities, will have no answer to any question. This will be at a time when wars will fall on you with hardships, and days will be so hard on you that you will feel them prolonged because of hardship till Allah grants victory to those from among you who remain virtuous.

When riots come, they will confuse and when they clear away, they will leave a warning. They cannot be clear at the time of approach but are recognizing at the time of return. They are striking some cities and missing others. Beware! The worst riot against you, in my view, is the riot of Bane Umayyad, because it is blind as well as creating darkness. Its way is general but its misfortune is for certain people. Distress, and the one who does not understand it will afflict but, the one who has clear understanding of it he will avoid distress. By Allah, after me you will find Bane Umayyad the most worst, like the old unruly she-camel that bites, beats with its fore-legs, kicks with its hind legs and refuses to be milked. They will stay over you until they leave among you only those who benefit them, or those who do not harm them. Their calamity will continue until your seeking help from them will become like a slave seeking help of his master, or the follower seeking help of the leader. Their misfortune will come to you like evil-eyed fear and pre-Islamic fragments that has neither lighthouse of guidance nor any sign of salvation.

We are the family of the prophet free from this misfortune, and we are not among those who will engender it. Then, Allah will dispel it from you like the removal of the skin from the flesh through him who will humble them, drag them by their necks, make them drink full cups of hardships, not extend to them anything but the sword and not clothing them except fear. At that time, Quraish will wish at the cost of the world and al its contents to find me even only once, just for the duration of the slaughter of a camel, so that I may accept from them that of the present. I am asking them only a portion, but they still are not giving me))([6]).

Other Sermon referring to al-Kufa:

Nahij al-Balagha mentioned (from his sermons) that the news reached Imam Ali (peace be upon him) relating the control of Mu'awiyah's companions over the Yemen, which both his governors Obaidullah Bin Abbas and Saeed Bin Namran defeated by Bisr Bin Arta'ah. He went up to the pulpit (peace be upon him) bored because his companions have been lumbering for Jihad and violating his opinion, he said:

((Now I have only al-Kufa under my control and holding it, if you are so afraid and easily giving up your property, than Allah disfigure you

Then he cited a verse of the poetry that is:

O Omer to your father the goodness, I received a small bit of fat only from this pot.

Then he said (peace be upon him):

((I received news that Bisr took over Yemen. By Allah, I did not believe that these people will shortly control the whole country and they met to do something wrong, while you were very quickly disunited and left your right. You were disobeyed your Imam in matters of right while they obeyed their leader in matters of wrong thing. They achieved their promise in favor of their leader whereas you betrayed your Imam. They did well for their country while you corrupted your country.

Even if I give, you charge of a wooden bowl, I fear you will run away with its handle.

O Allah, I have disgusted them and they disgusted me too. I were weary of them and they were weary of me, O Allah replace them for me with better ones, and replace me for them with a worse one. O my God melt their heart as salt melts in water. By Allah, I wished I had only a thousand equestrians of Bani Firas Bin Ghanm

There, if you call them, they will come, equestrians like summer cloud. Then he descended the platform([7]) 

Other Sermon (Spirits):

It is famous and important sermon mentioned in Nahij al-Balagha under the title (Spirits Sermon).

Masa'ada Bin Sadaqa narrated from al-Sadiq Jaafar Bin Mohammed (peace be upon them) who said, "Amir al-Mu'minin held this sermon from the pulpit of the Kufa mosque, when a man asked him," O Amir al-Mu'minin (peace be upon him) " Describe Allah for us in such a way that we imagine that we see Him with eyes so that our love and knowledge may increase about Him". He became angry and shouted" Collective Prayer, the people gathered even the mosque became overcrowded. He ascended the pulpit while he was angry and his face color was changed. He praised and extolled Allah, and blessed upon the prophet and his family([8]).

For the importance of the sermon that he held in the Kufa Mosque and from its platform, we mention the first three parts of it: 1. describing Allah Almighty, 2. Attributes of Allah Almighty in Quran, 3. His description of heaven.

1. Describing Allah Almighty  

"Praising is all to Allah, Who doesn't know refusal and stinginess, Who is neither the munificence nor the generosity make Him poor. For anybody who gives away thinking it is lose, except Him, and for his niggardliness, the miser blamed, except Him. He is the munificent with His bounties and plentiful gifts and grants. All beings are His dependents, where He guaranteed their livelihood and ordinated their sustenance. He has opened a way for those who wish to turn to Him and for those who seek an answer of what they have. He is more bestowal without asking Him than those from them one is asked. He is the First for who there was none before so that there could nothing before Him. He is the Last for who there is no after so there could nothing after Him. Time does not change him to admit any change of condition about Him. He is not in any place to allow Him moving from one place to another.

If He gives away all that mines of the mountains and cuttings of coral that the shells of the ocean vomit out, it will not affect his munificence nor admonish the extent of what he has. Actually, he still has such treasures of bounty as will not decrease by the demands of the creatures because he simply is that generous. Thus, He is not angry for their begging and their questions, He is not stingy although the insistence of the misers.

2. Attributes of Allah Almighty in Quran:

"Look O you the asker, believe in those attributes of Allah mentioned in Quran and you have to enlighten your mind and soul from its guidance. You have to avoid Allah's attributes mentioned by Satan that are neither in Quran nor in prophet's deeds or, sayings (Allah bless him and his family) and Imams of guidance are its traces. Only Almighty know these and this is only the extreme limit of the right of Allah on you. Be aware that only those who deepened in the knowledge and are able to open the curtains that lie against the unknown. They acknowledged their ignorance about the details of the hidden unknown that prevents them for further attempts. Thus, Allah prais-es their acknowledgment of the inability, where they do not allow getting more knowing. They do not go further in their search of what does not allow to them about knowing Him. You have to limit your knowledge to this point and do not go be beyond the Greatness of Allah, because when you measure the capacity of your own intelligence comparing it with Allah, you should be among the destroyed ones. He is powerful even if the imagination try to realize His ability, the mind will divert to the dangers of evil thoughts, you have to find Him in the depth of His realm. The hearts are very eager to grasp the realities of His attributes. The entrances of minds closed and did reach the description of securing knowledge about His being. They turn back wandering in the dark pitfall of the unknown and focusing on Him. They defeated and admitted that the reality of His knowledge can neither comprehended by such random efforts nor can an iota of the sublimity of His Honor enter the comprehension of those ponder. He found the creation without any example, that one can follow, and without any specimen made by any known creator. He shows us the realm of His Might, and the wonders reflect the traces of His Wisdom. All created things confess that their existence belongs to Him, making every created thing becomes as an argument leading to know Him. The wonders appear to show the signs of His creative power and standard of His Wisdom, so everything has created becoming and an argument for Him and a guide to Him even if the created thing is silent one, His argument of arranging and organizing thing is clear, and their sign of the creator is fixed. I testify that the one who likens Thee through the dissimilarity of the organs of Thou creatures and the fact of the cohesion of their limbs is hidden by the arrangement of Thou wisdom, and he does not acquaint his inner self with knowledge about You Thee. His heart does not have satisfaction that there is no partner with Thee. As if he has not hear the followers, of whom they followed, declaiming their false gods by saying "By Allah we were in completely in clear error when we equaled Thee with the master of the worlds. Those who liken You to their idols, are wrong and outfit you with apparels of the creatures through their imagination, attributing to You parts of body through their own way of thinking. They regard Thee to be akin to creatures of various types through the working of their intelligence. I testify that whoever equates Thee with any of Thou creation models a likeness for Thee. Whomever takes a likeness for Thee is an unbeliever, according to what is stated in Thou unambiguous verses and is indicated by the testimony of Thou clear argument. I also testify that Thee are Allah who cannot be confined to the fetters of intelligence so as to admit change of the condition through entertaining imagination, nor in the shackles of mind so as to become limited an object subjects to alterations.

3. Describing the Heaven:

He has organized the openings of its walls without the suspension, and welding cracks of its deviation and entwined between its pairs. He facilitates the way for those who come down by His order and those who go up with the deeds of His creatures. He has facilitated the way for those who come down by His commands and for those who go up with the deeds of the creatures. Its ascending place is snick. He called it when it is a smoke so directly its parts joined. Then Allah opened the gate and put thick material at its hole, carrying them with His powerful hands so that it does not fall in the vastness of the space. Then Allah ordered it to stop, so directly did under His obedience, then He made the sun glowing for its day and the moon is a gloomy sign of its night. Then Allah ordered them to move in their orbits and ordained them motion in the stages of their paths in order to distinguish between the night and the day; and to recognize the numbers of years so that the calculation could be according to their fixed movement. Allah, then, hangs its vast space of the sky and put the stars as a decoration glowing with the light and brightness. He shot at the over-hearers arrows of bright meteors. Then He put them in motion on their limited routine where they become fixed stars, moving stars, descending stars, ascending stars, ominous stars and happiness's stars([9]). 


[1]. Sifeen Battle/Naser Bin Muzahim al-Manqri: P3.

[2]. The same reference: P403.

[3]. Sifeen Battle/Naser Bin Muzahim al-Manqri: P9.

[4]. The same reference: P10.

[5]. salem bin qais al-kufi: p156.

[6]. Nahj al-Balagha /tandhimSubhi al-Salih/Khutba 93/:P137=138.

[7]. Nahj al-Balagha/Tandhim Subhi al-Salih/ Khutba 25: P66-67.

[8]. Nahij al-Balagha/Tandhim Subhi al-Salih/ Khutba 25: P124.

[9]. Nahij al-Balagha/Tandhim Subhi al-Salih/ Khutba 91: P124-128.